Hi, I'm Kiran Rao.

Android Developer. Tech enthusiast. Serial dabbler.

Delegates - Composition over Inheritance in Kotlin

Joshua Bloch's Effective Java Item 16 says "Favor composition over Inheritance". The reasons for doing so are well-described in the book, so we will concentrate on the implementation aspects and how Kotlin helps.

The idea behind composition is that if class A needs behavior defined in class B, then instead of inheriting from class B, it could have a member variable of class B. Then any behavior that class A would have achieved by calling a method on super, it achieves the same by calling that method on the member variable of type class B instead.

An example of this is seen in the book: The InstrumentedSet - first a broken implementation that uses Inheritance, and then corrects it using Composition. When you use the composition pattern, the wrapper class simply forwards all method calls to an instance of the wrapped class.

public class ForwardingSet<E> implements Set<E> {
    * ForwardingSet is the wrapper class and it wraps the Set.
    * In this example ForwardingSet also implements Set interface but that is just 
    * in order to adhere to the interface and not for inheritance. Set, being an interface, there is
    * no implementations in {@code super}!
    private final Set<E> s; 

    public ForwardingSet(Set<E> s) {
        this.s = s;

    public void clear() {

    public boolean contains(Object o) {
        return s.contains(o);

    public boolean isEmpty() {
        return s.isEmpty();

    public int size() {
        return s.size();

    public Iterator<E> iterator() {
        return s.iterator();

    public boolean add(E e) {
        return s.add(e);

    public boolean remove(Object o) {
        return s.remove(o);

    public boolean containsAll(Collection<?> c) {
        return s.containsAll(c);

    public boolean addAll(Collection<? extends E> c) {
        return s.addAll(c);

    public boolean removeAll(Collection<?> c) {
        return s.removeAll(c);

    public boolean retainAll(Collection<?> c) {
        return s.retainAll(c);

    public Object[] toArray() {
        return s.toArray();

    public <T> T[] toArray(T[] a) {
        return s.toArray(a);

    public boolean equals(Object o) {
        return s.equals(o);

    public int hashCode() {
        return s.hashCode();

    public String toString() {
        return s.toString();

As you can see, the downside of using the composition pattern is the verbosity. This is boilerplace, tedious, robotic code that should be automated.

And, well, it can be automated. IDE's do this automation for you. IntelliJ, for example, has "Replace Inheritance with Delegation" as an option in the "Refactor" menu. However, the generated code is still code that needs to be maintained. When you change methods/add new methods, you now have two (or more) places where you need to make the change. Also over time you are no longer sure what parts of this class were generated and what parts were hand-writtern.

Delegation in Kotlin

Enter Kotlin's delegates. Here is the same example using Kotlin delegates.

 open class ForwardingMutableSet<E>(s: MutableSet<E>): MutableSet<E> by s

It really is as simple as that. The by s clause basically tells Kotlin to maintain an object of MutableSet and forward any applicable calls to that instance instead. And remember all this is done at compile time.

The complete example, including a simple unit test is hosted here. You can play around with it thanks to the awesome try.kotlinlang.org.


This is a limitation with the pattern, rather than with Kotlin's implementation of the pattern - you can only use delegation if you control the instantiation of the object of the wrapped class. You cannot, for example compose Android's Activity classes because the framework instantiates an Activity for you. Of course, you should probably be composing Presenters/ViewModels/Whatever rather than Activities/Fragments but that is a topic for another blog post!

Back to Top